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古根海姆成功申遗,今年中国有哪些遗址入选名录?

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兰克·劳埃德·赖特在1943年至1959年期间设计的纽约所罗门·R·古根海姆美术馆。图片:by David Heald, ©Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, courtesy of UNESCO

兰克·劳埃德·赖特在1943年至1959年期间设计的纽约所罗门·R·古根海姆美术馆。图片:by David Heald, ©Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, courtesy of UNESCO

在阿塞拜疆巴库举行的第43届联合国教科文组织世界遗产委员会会议(简称:世界遗产大会)共审议了35项申报,其中纽约所罗门·R·古根海姆美术馆、布基纳法索古冶铁遗址(Ancient ferrous metallurgy sites of Burkina Faso, Tiwêga furnace, near Kaya)以及伊拉克巴比伦古城遗址等29项成为联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)世界文化遗产名录(简称《名录》)的新增成员。

2019年7月5日和6日,中国黄(渤)海候鸟栖息地(第一期)和“良渚古城遗址"分别在第43届世界遗产委员会会议上获准入选《名录》。至此,中国“世遗"总数达55处,超越意大利位居世界第一。 

中国黄(渤)海候鸟栖息地(第一期)。图片:©Yancheng Broadcasting Television, courtesy of UNESCO

中国黄(渤)海候鸟栖息地(第一期)。图片:©Yancheng Broadcasting Television, courtesy of UNESCO

良渚古城遗址 。图片:©Hangzhou Liangzhu Archaeological - Site Administrative District Management Committee, courtesy of UNESCO

良渚古城遗址 。图片:©Hangzhou Liangzhu Archaeological – Site Administrative District Management Committee, courtesy of UNESCO

本届《名录》范围从近300年历史,以其建筑和城市规划而闻名的印度北部拉贾斯坦邦(Rajasthan)首府斋浦尔(Jaipur)到1945年在英国柴郡创立的卓瑞尔河岸天文台(The Jodrell Bank Observatory, UK),它被认为是世界上最重要的射电天文台之一(主要观测设施为洛弗尔望远镜及马克II型射电望远镜)。

弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特曾荣登1938年1月17日《时代》周刊封面。图片:致谢《时代》周刊

弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特曾荣登1938年1月17日《时代》周刊封面。图片:致谢《时代》周刊

美国建筑大师弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)生前设计的8 座建筑被纳入《名录》,分别是团结教堂(伊利诺伊州)、罗比之家(伊利诺伊州)、塔立耶森设计工作室(威斯康辛州)、霍利霍克别墅(加利福尼亚州)、赫伯特与凯瑟琳· 雅各布第一住宅 、流水别墅(宾夕法尼亚州)、西塔立耶森住宅(亚利桑那州)、纽约古根海姆美术馆(纽约州)。

弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特,流水别墅(Fallingwater)。图片:by Christopher Little, ©Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, courtesy of UNESCO

弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特,流水别墅(Fallingwater)。图片:by Christopher Little, ©Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, courtesy of UNESCO

这也是联合国教科文组织首次将美国的现代建筑列入该名单。终于在赖特建筑作品列入世界遗产之后,并称现代主义建筑的四位大师:赖特、勒·柯布西耶、密斯·范·德·罗厄和格罗皮乌斯均在《名录》占有一席之地。2016 年勒·柯布西耶 (Le Corbusier) 设计的十七座建筑入选《名录》;2011年格罗皮乌斯(Walter Gropius)设计的法古斯工厂被列入《名录》;2001年密斯·范·德·罗厄(Ludwig Mies van der Rohe)设计的布尔诺图根德哈特别墅入选《名录》。

1959年竣工的纽约古根海姆美术馆以其独特的螺旋环绕的墙面,和从地面缓缓升高的螺旋走道,直达建筑物顶部而闻名。它在1990年被认定为纽约市地标,2008年被认定为美国国家历史地标。该建筑位于纽约“博物馆英里"(Museum Mile)沿线的第五大道, 2005年也被列入了“美国国家史迹名录"(National Register of Historic Places)。

世界遗产委员协会还评选出几处自然景观,包括名副其实的火与冰之地,拥有冰川下的火山的冰岛瓦特纳冰川国家公园(Vatnajokull National Park);以其2500万到5000万年的历史和生物多样性而闻名的伊朗希尔卡尼亚森林(Hyrcanian Forest) ,这里44%的植物物种在世界其他地方都没被发现。

《世界遗产名录》创建于1978年,由世界各地1100多个重要的自然、历史和文化地标组成。

请看以下联合国教科文组织世界遗产名录新增项目的照片:

英国柴郡卓瑞尔河岸天文台。图片:by Anthony Holloway, courtesy of UNESCO

英国柴郡卓瑞尔河岸天文台。图片:by Anthony Holloway, courtesy of UNESCO

葡萄牙马夫拉宫(Royal Building of Mafra, Portugal)。图片:©DGPC, courtesy of UNESCO

葡萄牙马夫拉宫(Royal Building of Mafra, Portugal)。图片:©DGPC, courtesy of UNESCO

葡萄牙北部城市布拉加郊外山上仁慈耶稣朝圣所(Santuário do Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga, Portugal)。图片:©João Paulo Sotto Mayor, courtesy of UNESCO

葡萄牙北部城市布拉加郊外山上仁慈耶稣朝圣所(Santuário do Bom Jesus do Monte in Braga, Portugal)。图片:©João Paulo Sotto Mayor, courtesy of UNESCO

陶山书院(Dosan Seowon, South Korea)。图片:by Oh Jong-eun, © Council for Promotion of the Inscription of Confucian Academies on the World Heritage List, courtesy of UNESCO

陶山书院(Dosan Seowon, South Korea)。图片:by Oh Jong-eun, © Council for Promotion of the Inscription of Confucian Academies on the World Heritage List, courtesy of UNESCO

奥格斯堡水利管理系统(The Water Management System of Augsburg)。图片:by Severin, ©ZEHNTAUSENDGRAD Videowerbung GmbH, courtesy of UNESCO

奥格斯堡水利管理系统(The Water Management System of Augsburg)。图片:by Severin, ©ZEHNTAUSENDGRAD Videowerbung GmbH, courtesy of UNESCO

巴比伦伊什塔尔城门(Babylon, Iraq, the Marduk gate)。图片:by Qahtan Al-Abeed, courtesy of UNESCO

巴比伦伊什塔尔城门(Babylon, Iraq, the Marduk gate)。图片:by Qahtan Al-Abeed, courtesy of UNESCO

厄尔士/克鲁什内山脉矿区(Erzgebirge/Krušnohoří Mining Region, Czechia, Germany. Dippoldiswalde Medieval Silver Mines)。图片:by J. Kugler, courtesy of UNESCO

厄尔士/克鲁什内山脉矿区(Erzgebirge/Krušnohoří Mining Region, Czechia, Germany. Dippoldiswalde Medieval Silver Mines)。图片:by J. Kugler, courtesy of UNESCO

阿伊斯奈皮石刻(Writing-on-Stone/Áísínai'pi, Canada. Shield-bearing warrior and the distant Sweetgrass Hills)。图片:by Alberta Parks, courtesy of UNESCO

阿伊斯奈皮石刻(Writing-on-Stone/Áísínai'pi, Canada. Shield-bearing warrior and the distant Sweetgrass Hills)。图片:by Alberta Parks, courtesy of UNESCO

普斯科夫学派教堂建筑(Churches of the Pskov School of Architecture, Russia. Church of St. Nicholas so Usokhi(from the dry place)) 16世纪。图片:by A.G. Kalinenko, ©State budgetary institution of culture “Research and Development Centre for Conservation and Use of Historical and Cultural Monuments of the Pskov Region, courtesy of UNESCO

普斯科夫学派教堂建筑(Churches of the Pskov School of Architecture, Russia. Church of St. Nicholas so Usokhi(from the dry place)) 16世纪。图片:by A.G. Kalinenko, ©State budgetary institution of culture “Research and Development Centre for Conservation and Use of Historical and Cultural Monuments of the Pskov Region, courtesy of UNESCO

迪尔穆恩墓葬群(Dilmun Burial Mounds, Bahrain. Madinat Hamad 1 Burial Mound Field)。图片:Melanie Münzner, ©Think Heritage, courtesy of UNESCO

迪尔穆恩墓葬群(Dilmun Burial Mounds, Bahrain. Madinat Hamad 1 Burial Mound Field)。图片:Melanie Münzner, ©Think Heritage, courtesy of UNESCO

舍基历史中心及汗王宫殿(Historic Centre of Sheki with the Khan's Palace, Azerbaijan)。图片:by S. Mammadov. ©Azerberpa, courtesy of UNESCO

舍基历史中心及汗王宫殿(Historic Centre of Sheki with the Khan's Palace, Azerbaijan)。图片:by S. Mammadov. ©Azerberpa, courtesy of UNESCO

吉必姆文化景观(Budj Bim Cultural Landscape, Australia. Lake Condah)。图片:©Gunditj Mirring Traditional Owners Aboriginal Corporation, courtesy of UNESCO

吉必姆文化景观(Budj Bim Cultural Landscape, Australia. Lake Condah)。图片:©Gunditj Mirring Traditional Owners Aboriginal Corporation, courtesy of UNESCO

大加那利岛文化景观:里斯科卡伊多考古和圣山(Risco Caido and the Sacred Mountains of Gran Canaria Cultural Landscape, Spain. The Milky Way over the Bentayga Highlands)。图片:by Nacho Gonzalez, courtesy of UNESCO

大加那利岛文化景观:里斯科卡伊多考古和圣山(Risco Caido and the Sacred Mountains of Gran Canaria Cultural Landscape, Spain. The Milky Way over the Bentayga Highlands)。图片:by Nacho Gonzalez, courtesy of UNESCO

伊朗希尔卡尼亚森林。图片:by Fariba Babaei, courtesy of UNESCO

伊朗希尔卡尼亚森林。图片:by Fariba Babaei, courtesy of UNESCO

川圹巨石缸遗址-石缸平原(Megalithic Jar Sites in Xiengkhuang – Plain of Jars, Lao People's Democratic Republic. A group of megalithic jars in Site 2, Ban Na Kho Village, Phaxay District)。图片:by Kamonrat Chayamarit, ©Department of Heritage, courtesy of UNESCO

川圹巨石缸遗址-石缸平原(Megalithic Jar Sites in Xiengkhuang – Plain of Jars, Lao People's Democratic Republic. A group of megalithic jars in Site 2, Ban Na Kho Village, Phaxay District)。图片:by Kamonrat Chayamarit, ©Department of Heritage, courtesy of UNESCO

蒲甘(缅甸)(Bagan, Myanmar, a sacred Buddhist landscape)。图片:©Department of Archaeology and National Museum, courtesy of UNESCO

蒲甘(缅甸)(Bagan, Myanmar, a sacred Buddhist landscape)。图片:©Department of Archaeology and National Museum, courtesy of UNESCO

拉贝河畔克拉德鲁比的仪式马车用马繁育与训练景观(Landscape for Breeding and Training of Ceremonial Carriage Horses at Kladruby nad Labem, Czechia)。图片:by Jiří Podrazil, ©National Stud Farm at Kladruby nad Labem, s.p.o., courtesy of UNESCO

拉贝河畔克拉德鲁比的仪式马车用马繁育与训练景观(Landscape for Breeding and Training of Ceremonial Carriage Horses at Kladruby nad Labem, Czechia)。图片:by Jiří Podrazil, ©National Stud Farm at Kladruby nad Labem, s.p.o., courtesy of UNESCO

百舌鸟和古市古坟群:古日本墓葬群(Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group: Mounded Tombs of Ancient Japan, Nintoku-tenno-ryo Kofun)。图片:©Sakai City Government, courtesy of UNESCO

百舌鸟和古市古坟群:古日本墓葬群(Mozu-Furuichi Kofun Group: Mounded Tombs of Ancient Japan, Nintoku-tenno-ryo Kofun)。图片:©Sakai City Government, courtesy of UNESCO

科舍米翁奇的史前条纹燧石矿区(Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region, Poland. A viewing platform over Neolithic exploitation field)。图片:by Krzysztof Pêczalski, ©Historical and Archaeological Museum in Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, courtesy of UNESCO

科舍米翁奇的史前条纹燧石矿区(Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region, Poland. A viewing platform over Neolithic exploitation field)。图片:by Krzysztof Pêczalski, ©Historical and Archaeological Museum in Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, courtesy of UNESCO

French Austral Lands and Seas, Saint-Paul Islands。图片:by Nelly Gravier, courtesy of UNESCO

French Austral Lands and Seas, Saint-Paul Islands。图片:by Nelly Gravier, courtesy of UNESCO

冰岛瓦特纳冰川国家公园。图片:by Thorvardur Arnason, courtesy of UNESCO

冰岛瓦特纳冰川国家公园。图片:by Thorvardur Arnason, courtesy of UNESCO

Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. View of Sanganeri Gate from Bapu Bazaar。图片:©DRONAH, courtesy of UNESCO

Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. View of Sanganeri Gate from Bapu Bazaar。图片:©DRONAH, courtesy of UNESCO

沙哇伦多的翁比林煤矿遗产(Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto, Indonesia)。图片:©Office of Cultural Affairs, Historical Remains and Museum, courtesy of UNESCO

沙哇伦多的翁比林煤矿遗产(Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto, Indonesia)。图片:©Office of Cultural Affairs, Historical Remains and Museum, courtesy of UNESCO

意大利科内利亚诺和瓦尔多比亚德内的普罗赛柯产地(Le Colline del Prosecco di Conegliano e Valdobbiadene)。图片:©Consorzio Tutela del Vino Conegliano Valdobbiadene Prosecco Superiore Docg/Arcangelo Piai fotografo, courtesy of UNESCO

意大利科内利亚诺和瓦尔多比亚德内的普罗赛柯产地(Le Colline del Prosecco di Conegliano e Valdobbiadene)。图片:©Consorzio Tutela del Vino Conegliano Valdobbiadene Prosecco Superiore Docg/Arcangelo Piai fotografo, courtesy of UNESCO

帕拉蒂和格兰德岛(Paraty and Ilha Grande, Brazil. Chapel of Sorrows)。图片:by Oscar Liberal, ©IPHAN, courtesy of UNESCO

帕拉蒂和格兰德岛(Paraty and Ilha Grande, Brazil. Chapel of Sorrows)。图片:by Oscar Liberal, ©IPHAN, courtesy of UNESCO

 

 

文|Sarah Cascone、Weixin Jin